Sunday, January 12, 2020
Full name and student old on all pages. All labs have to be done during lab time, in the lab room. Each lab has to be checked by the Instructor progressively during lab time. You must call your instructor to check your work and sign It whenever you reach the point asking for the Instructor's Inhalants or signature. LAB 1. Gather and Record System Information Objectives: Gather system information by observing a system use available software tools to access specific system information Activity Background: When working with a computer system, it's a good idea to know hat components are installed on the system. This lab helps you identify some of the components as you gather information by observing the system and using system tools. 1. LAB SETUP: You have three systems that you can work on.On your desk, the HP Compact 5700 system with Windows XP operating system and an Anted Ã¢â¬â Windows 7 (Sonata Ill 500 case with the Intel desktop board DIPSOS and Windows 7 Operating System). Unde r your desk you have another HP Compact 8100 system that is connected to the college network and has access to the Internet. For this lab and all other labs you will be working on the two systems located on your desk. Do not open any system yet. Inspect both of your systems. Do they have any Identification on them indicating manufacturer, model, or component Information?If so, list this Information in the space below. 2. How many CD or DVD drives does each system have? Does each one of your systems support? 4. What is the type of the mouse the systems use? 5. Open the case of the HP Compact 5700 system. How many internal hard drives does your system have? 6. How many memory modules are installed? 7. If you can state the manufacturer and model of the motherboard the system is using. 8. Boot on the HP Windows XP system and make sure Windows starts with no errors. 9. On your Windows XP desktop, click Start, then Control Panel.Double-click system to open the System Properties window. An swer the following questions. A) Which SO is installed? B) What is the version number of your computer Operating System? C) Does it have a Service pack? Which one? D) Who is the system registered to? E) According to the System Properties, what type of CPU is your system using? 10. Close all windows. On your desktop double-click on My Computer icon. A) Including hard drives, how many drives are listed, and which drive letters are assigned to them? ) What differences, if any, are there between a list of components derived from the physical inspection versus a list of components derived from My Computer and System Properties? 11. Boot on Windows 7 and make sure Windows starts with no errors. 12. On your Windows 7, click Start, then Control Panel I System Security I System. Answer the following questions. B) What type of CPU is your system using? C) What is the System type (32 or 64 bit)? D) How much RAM is installed in your system? E) Including hard drives, how many drives are listed, and which drive letters are assigned to them?
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Cultural competency is critical in psychology practice. In the United States, the groups, which considered as cultural and ethnic minorities, are growing in the population (APA, 2003). Culture often influences the content and quality of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s experience, perception, and response. Thus, it is important for psychologists to be aware of cultural influences on clientÃ¢â¬â¢s presenting experience(s) (Gardiner Kosmitzki, 2010). Without a regard for cultural influence, there is a significant risk for the psychologist to misunderstand, misinterpret, and misguide his or her client. Such misunderstanding, misinterpretation, and misguidance are not only unhelpful but can be detrimental for the client (Corey, Corey, Callanan, 2011; Pope, Vasquez, 2011). To ensure culturally competent practice, I would seek education, a consultation with a provider/expert who is competent in a given culture, use a culturally appropriate method/ instrument, design a culturally sensitive research, and provide a culturally sensitive as well as appropriate informed consent. I believe that it is important for a psychologist to engage in ongoing education to have up-to-date information in the field of psychology including multicultural psychology. The field is constantly changing and developing; thus, psychologists must be in the habit of seeking new information to serve their clients in an ethical manner. In addition to seeking new research and theoretical information, continuing education must includeShow MoreRelatedDiversity in the United States1647 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPart One The United States population continues to increase in racial and ethnic diversity, therefore, it is pertinent that mental health professionals tailor their services to the needs of various cultural populations (Constantine, Kindaichi, Arorash, Donnelly, Jung, 2002). The awareness that ethnic minorities experience negative consequences from being oppressed, resulted in the multicultural competence pedagogy and has helped counselors identify effective strategies to generate social changeRead MoreCompetency Self Assessment Essay1132 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThese are the skills and competencies I have learned through my studies at Walden University. Kaslow, Grus, Campbell, Fouad, et al. (2009) stated professionalism comes from my respect for those who need help. Integrity can be built with confidence in the therapist. Attitudes are charitable, polite, caring emotions toward others that fuel my motivation toward helping. This concern welfare of others comes from my religious and persona l experiences as a child and young adult. Furthermore, legalRead MoreEvaluation Of Competency For Stand Trial1101 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Forensic Assessments Correctional Psychology Jessica Hogan January 20, 2016 Dr. Kenneth Martz Argosy University During any court proceeding, it is required that the defendant is competent to stand trial. Legal competency is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the presence of those characteristics, or the absence of those disabilities, which render a witness legally fit and qualified to give testimony in a court of justiceÃ¢â¬ (thelawdictionary.org). Defendants that are found mentally incompetent to standRead MoreDiversity and Cultural Competence in Family Therapy Essay1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Diversity and Cultural Competence in Family Therapy A therapist will face problems, issues and client troubles everyday. The professional must understand how their client relates to the world around them. These feelings and ideas affect how the client sees the problem and how they respond to their situation. Their actions, in turn, have bearing on individual thoughts, needs, and emotions. The therapist must be aware of the clients history, values, and culture in order to provideRead MoreWhy The Practitioner Scholar Model Is Aligned With My Personal And Professional Goals1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfirst year in Midwestern UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Clinical Psychology program has been one of self-exploration and discovery. I have expanded my knowledge of the field of psychology while growing as an individual and clinician. The lessons I have learned at the Cancer Support Community (CSC) are priceless. Furthermore, the academic knowledge I gained has made me grow as a clinician. In this paper, I will define the two main training models in t he field of psychology, and explain why the Practitioner-Scholar modelRead MoreMulticultural Counseling Is The Hour Of The Need1204 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesneed. A recent research showed that 89% of programs (of counseling psychology) today focus on multicultural-centric courses (Sue et al, 1992). There are several approaches to multicultural counseling. This paper would focus on the Three Factor Model for multicultural counseling and would delve into the model discussing its various aspects, also examining it critically. The three factors that the model takes into account are cultural identity, development stage and adjustment to disability. Sue et alRead MorePsychology and Religion1229 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThis deductive essay explores the relationship between and the practices involving psychology and religion in order to uphold the ethics code. There is a sensitivity level that must be exhibited by psychology professionals that practice traditional psychology in order to make clients feel comfortable and secure in the treatment setting. In addition, this essay explains the use of religion in non-traditional psychology and the professional manner according to the ethics code in which using non-traditionalRead MoreMilitary Veterans And Military Culture And How Does It Affect The Therapeutic Alliance?1929 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesuniquely different from the civilian world (Hall, 2013). By all accounts, the military meets the definition of a culture. It has a language, code of conduct, behavioral norm s, belief systems, dress, and rituals (Meyer, Writer, Brim, 2016). As in other cultural contexts, service in the military can influence a personÃ¢â¬â¢s values, beliefs, expectations, and behaviors. While service members share a culture, their individual experiences can vary tremendously depending on the military branch, time and place ofRead MoreWhat Is Cultural Intelligence (Cq)?. The Cultural Intelligence1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat is Cultural Intelligence (CQ)? The Cultural Intelligence Center defines CQ as a tool that Ã¢â¬Å"measures your capability to relate and work effectively in culturally diverse situationsÃ¢â¬ (What is CQ Anyway?, 2017), noting that CQ is a form of intelligence that has been tested by academic researchers in over 98 countries for nearly two decades. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) is the ability to understand key cultural standards of a colleagueÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, to listen, discern, and modify someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviorRead MoreI Am A California Department Of Insurance987 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesArgosy University has affords this author the opportunity to complete the required classes, in the study of human behavior, in pursue of a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Psychology. In doing so, It has allowed me to assess my goals, reflect on my successes, and look toward to the future with a bright new perspective. Consequently, having gone through the process of being more selective in my career choices has given me a clearer vi sion of the future and allowed me the opportunity to pursue a more realistic
Friday, December 27, 2019
Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21st in 1899. Named after his grandfather, Hemingway was the second of six siblings in his family. He was born and raised in a town called Oak Park, which was known for being an upper/middle-class suburb only ten miles from Chicago. Hemingway would later refer to his place of birth as a Ã¢â¬Å"neighborhood of wide lawns and narrow minds.Ã¢â¬ This was likely due to the fact that Oak Park was mainly a conservative town that tried to separate from the liberal views of the big city. Hemingway was raised with very strict, conservative values, which taught him that the most important things in life were religion, hard work, physical fitness and self-determination. HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although he grew up in a very strict religious childhood, Hemingway decided to stay away from things like politics and religions (Lost Generation). He believed you had to keep away from these focuses as a writer. Hemingway was considered Catholic because he had to convert to marry his second wife Pauline. However, when he died he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t qualify for a traditional catholic burial because of the three divorces that he previously had. With the fact that he divorced his wife multiple times, many critics are lead to believe that he was not religious at all (Conversations with E.H.). Ernest Hemingway is a household name; even if you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t read a single piece of literature heÃ¢â¬â¢s written, odd are you know who he is. Many ordinary people that read his work praise him for the masterpieces that he created, these folks canÃ¢â¬â¢t get enough of Ernest Hemingway. In fact there are critics all over the world that see Hemingway as one of the greatest writers of all time. Lionel Trilling, a professor and critic at Columbia, speaks for himself and many other critiquing-writers, such as Jack Frost and Archibald MacLeish, when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"His place in American literature is secure and pre-eminent. There is no one in the whole range of literature of the modern world who has a better claim than he to be acknowledged as a master, but it is in his short stories rather than in his novels that his genius mostShow MoreRelatedErnest Hemingway s The Sun942 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesErnest Hemingway lived a fairly normal childhood. He was born on July 21st, 1899 to Grac e and Clarence Hemingway in Oak Park, Illinois. He was heavily influenced by nature as a young man and would take summer trips to Walloon Lake in Michigan (Ernest 1). During his stay, he would participate in hunting and fishing. His passion for nature influenced many parts in his works, such as the fishing trip in his novel, The Sun Also Rises. Hemingway grew up in a well educated and rather wealthy householdRead MoreErnest Hemingway, the Writer of Lost Generation Essay1322 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLiving in the overwhelming burden of the war, the Ã¢â¬Å"Lost GenerationÃ¢â¬ , which Ernest Hemingway was a part of, was a group of people spending their spring of life in warfare and aftereffect of war (Lost Generation). He was a laureate of the Novel Prize in Literature in 1954 as an influential American novelist. Ernest Hemingway expressed his experience and sentiments in his writings, exerting profound impact on American Literature (Nobel Prize). His birth, upbringing, employment, lite rary works, and effectRead MoreSilvia Parra Dela Longa. Professor: Leslie Richardson.1404 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesProfessor: Leslie Richardson ENGL 2342 26 February 2017 The Style of Ernest Hemingway According to critic Robert McCrum, associate literary editor of The Observer, and writer of six novels (theguardian.com) The Sun also Rises ranks number 53 on the list of the 100 best novels of 20th century American Literature. Why does The Sun Also Rises is respected as landmark in the world of words? One of the reasons is about the writing style of Hemingway, which transformed the path of American and English literatureRead MoreThe Old Man And The Sea Essay1718 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesErnest Hemingway is one of the greatest writing icons of the early to mid 20th century. Known mainly for his success in writing the critically acclaimed novel, The Old Man and the Sea, Hemingway had many symbolic meanings instituted throughout this novel and many other works. Many having the theme of a hero confronting a natural force, as seen when Santiago confronts the mighty sea. Along with the heroic themes, Hemingway had become a religious Catholic man growing up and decided to include manyRead Mo reArt And The Modern Era And Impact The 20th Century1522 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand Ernest Hemingway are those two names, which they donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to identification. They are well-known personality from lifetime works on their own respected fields. Pablo Picasso and Hemingway are most well-known in the 20th century and still popular in art and literature. Both artists created valuable paintings, stories and novels from their imagination and express beautifully that reader and viewer can inspired by them. That why they are always be our inspiration and idol. How did Ernest HemingwayRead MoreParisÃ¢â¬â¢s Appeal to the Lost Generation761 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGeneration refers specifically to the group of American expatriate writers associated with 1920s Paris. It is a term used to refer to the generation that came of age during World War I. Ernest Hemingway is said to be the most distinguished author of this group of writers having first used the phrase You are all a lost generation as the epigraph to his first novel The Sun Also Rises. After World War I, when nineteen-year-old Hemingway returned home, his parents did not understand the psychologicalRead MoreHow Did Ernest Hemingway Influenced By Ernest Hemingway1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthat these are the key inspirations for his triumph in the writing realm. People either adored Hemingway or had a strong hatred for him. Hemingway connects to his writing in a way that no other author of his time period could, which is shown throughout his writing. A substantial part of HemingwayÃ¢â¬â ¢s life was in the war, whether that was fighting or just helping out around the trenches. He did all of these things and still had a longing to travel the world. Ernest Hemingway was an excessively influentialRead MoreThe Death Of Franz Ferdinand Of Austria1736 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTelegram and the sinking of the Lusitania led to our true involvement in WWI.) Men looking to get into the action and get their adrenaline pumping while the US was acting Ã¢â¬Å"neutralÃ¢â¬ journeyed to Europe and joined other Allied armies. At the time, Ernest Hemingway was an American soldier who joined the Red Cross as an ambulance driver on his quest to see the war (Ruediger). After the war, he wrote A Farewell to Arms, a self-inspired story about his experiences. HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s atypical novel, set amidstRead MoreAnalysis Of Ernest Hemingway s Nobody Ever Dies 1351 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ernest Hemingway was and is a greatly celebrated American writer. During the Spanish Civil War, H emingway traveled to Spain to find inspiration for his stories. After returning home, Ã¢â¬Å"In March 1939, Cosmopolitan published a story by Ernest Hemingway entitled Ã¢â¬ËNobody Ever DiesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Cooper, 1988, pg 117). The story is about fighting for something that is bigger than yourself. This message is portrayed through the main characters Enrique and Maria. Enrique is a young Cuban veteran who fought for theRead MoreA Farewell Of Arms By Ernest Hemingway1942 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesFarewell to Arms Ernest Hemingway wrote, We re going to have a strange life. (D). His life was not ordinary by any means; he became the voice of his generation with his poignant works capturing the emotions of the American people after World War I. In his novel A Farewell to Arms Ernest Hemingway attempts to demonstrate through the characters of Frederic Henry and Rinaldi the feelings of horror and disillusionment the people of the Modern era tried to escape. Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Similarities and Differences in Juvenile and Adult Justice Systems When a juvenile is arrested and charged with committing a crime there are many different factors that will come in to play during the course of his arrest, trial, conviction, sentencing, and rehabilitation process. In the past we tried all criminals as adults. There was no distinction made between adult and child. Over the years we have come to realize the need to separate these two groups, as they are two distinctly different populations with very different physical and psychological needs. The separation of adult and juvenile courts finally allowed us to make separate and distinct rules for each population. Now it seems like once again the lines between the twoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Juvenile codes often do not require juveniles to enter a plea of guilty or not guilty. Instead, in an initial hearing the offender usually admits or denies the facts of the petition. If the juvenile admits to the facts of the petition the court determines an appropriate sentence. If th e juvenile denies the facts of the petition the case will precede to trial. Plea bargaining is typically not regarded in juvenile courts since they usually do not involve lengthy trials or long sentences. Early in the proceedings the court also has the power to transfer a juvenile offender from the juvenile court to the adult criminal court, known as the transfer process. Generally, offenders under the age of 16 are tried in juvenile court and not in an adult criminal court. However, virtually all states have statues that allow the transfer of juvenile offenders to adult court. There are three ways in which juveniles can be tried as adults in criminal courts: 1) Concurrent Jurisdiction, the prosecutor has the discretion of filing charges for certain offenses in either juvenile or criminal court 2) Statutory exclusion policies, certain offenses are automatically excluded from juvenile court 3) Judicial waiver, in the waiver of juvenile cases to criminal court, a hearing is held before a juvenile court judge, who then decides whether jurisdiction should be waived and theShow MoreRelatedSimilarities and Differences Between the Juvenile Justice and Adult Criminal System835 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRunning Head: JUVENILE V. CRIMINAL 1 Juvenile Justice System V. Criminal Justice System Ronda Cauchon CJ150-01 Professor Abreu Kaplan University October 9, 2012 JUVENILE V CRIMINAL 2 Juvenile Justice System V. Criminal Justice System In the earliest of times, juvenile offenders were treated theRead MoreJuvenile And Juvenile Justice System752 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe juvenile justice system and criminal justice system also known as the adult justice system is two different systems. The juvenile justice system is children who are under the age of 18 years old. After the age of 18, it is considered to be an adult it will enter through the adult justice system. There ate states that allows youth to stay in the juvenile justice system from age 18 until 21. The main differences between the juvenile justice system and criminal justice system is rehabilitation andRead MoreJuvenile Vs Juvenile915 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJuvenile v. Adult Corrections Juvenile delinquents use to not face police or a correction system, only the fear and punishment of their families. However, as the juvenile delinquents aged they were faced with harsher punishments, but it was not until the 1800s reformers started looking for ways to teach values and built asylum and training schools. Then the concept of parens patriae occurred to establish the right to intervene in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life when there were issues (Siegel, 2016). The next majorRead MoreJuvenile vs Adult Justice System Essay989 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAdult Justice v Juvenile Justice System There is no question that if a person is involved in any type of crime they will at some time make their way through the justice system. However, when that person is an adolescent they will go through the juvenile justice system, as an adult would go through the adult justice system. Even though the crimes of each can be of the same manner or hold the same severity the punishment results can differ. The main reason for having the two different justiceRead MoreEssay on Adult Justice System vs. Juvenile Justice System1145 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAdult Justice System vs. Juvenile Justice System Versus CJ150: Juvenile Delinquency Josh Skaggs There are many similarities and differences between the adult and juvenile justice systems. Although juvenile crimes have increased in violence and intensity in the last decade, there is still enough difference between the two legal proceedings, and the behaviors themselves, to keep the systems separated. There is room for changes in each structure. However, we cannot treat/punish juvenileRead MoreJuvenile Justice System And Adult Justice Systems1589 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbe discussing both the juvenile and the adult justice systems. There are several differences between the two systems, which may surprise you. I will be discussing many aspects within the justice systems. These include Terminology, Due Process rights, the process of Arrest to Corrections, Juvenile crime compared to Adult crime, age limits and waivers for the adult system and the different community correctional options, which are available to the offenders. The two systems share many of the same termsRead MoreJuv enile System vs Adult System609 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMy thoughts on this subject are pretty limited in reference to the similarities and differences between the juvenile and adult justice systems. What I have known is that in Colorado anyone under the age of 18 is considered a juvenile and if they commit a crime and if they are charged they go to a juvenile facility. Depending on the seriousness of the charge determines if they would be held or released to their parents. I believe their parents must be notified and present when they are advised ofRead MoreCrime And Juvenile And Adult Crimes1019 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn todayÃ¢â¬â¢s criminal justice system in the United States, there is a lot of dispute between what the qualifications are for juvenile and adult crimes. Some believe that the only difference is age. Others say it is the severity of the crime. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s obvious that when adults commit crimes, whether they are a misdemeanor offense or a felony, they pay for it. The confliction comes when a juvenile commits a crime. What exactly determines if they are tried as an adult or a juvenile? Does it vary by state-to-stateRead MoreJuvenile Justice And Its Effects On Society1722 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJuvenile justice is compared in chapter thirteen. In the nineteenth century, there was an increased number of children at risk and chronic poverty. This overall was a general concern because there was an increase of people in the Ã¢â¬Å"dangerous classesÃ¢â¬ . There was a child saving movement, in which the poor children represented a threat to the moral fabric of society. The nineteenth century was a time where they had a house of refuge. In this house of refuge, they had a society for the prevention of pauperismRead MoreJuvenile Justice And Criminal Justice1368 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The border between juvenile justice and criminal justice did not endure the juvenile courtÃ¢â¬â¢s first century. By the 1980s, there was general disappointment with both the means and the ends of normal juvenile justice. As with every other social repair efforts, it is difficult to say whether frustration with juvenile justice was born of erroneous concept or of wretched execution. The administering accepted by justice policy, however, was unmistakable. Juvenile courts began to adopt the sentiment and
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Motivation is defined as the force that: A. Energies Behavior- What initiates a behavior, behavioral patterns, or changes in behavior? What determines the level of effort and how hard a person works? This aspect of motivation deals with the question of What motivates people? B. Directs Behavior- What determines which behaviors an individual chooses? This aspect of motivation deals with the question of choice and conflict among competing behavioral alternatives. C. Sustains Behavior- What determines and individuals level of persistence with respect to behavioral patterns? This aspect of motivation deals with how behavior is sustained and stopped. II. Motivation is behaviorally specific, that is, it is more appropriate to think in terms of an individuals motivation to excel in a particular job requirement or even to carry out a specific behavior than it is to think about an individuals overall motivation. While the Duracell battery people are amusing, we do not generally find people that are either always motivated in every situation or not motivated in any situation. We will write a custom essay sample on Expectancy Theory or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page While individual dispositional variables may affect an individuals motivation level at any particular time, motivation itself is not a dispositional variable. III. We use the Expectancy Theory of motivation to help us understand how individuals make decisions regarding various behavioral alternatives. This model deals with the direction aspect of motivation, that is, once behavior is energized, what behavioral alternatives are individuals likely to pursue. The following are propositions of Expectancy Theory: A. When deciding among behavioral options, individuals select the option with the greatest motivation forces (MF). MF= Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valance B. The motivational force for a behavior, action, or task is a function of three distinct perceptions which are: 1. Expectancy- Probability (EaP): The expectancy is the belief that ones effort (E) will result is attainment of desired performance (P) goals. This belief, or perception, is generally based on an individuals past experience, self confidence (often termed self efficacy), and the perceived difficulty of the performance standard or goal. . Examples include: i. If I spend most of tonight studying will it improve my grade on tomorrows math exam? ii. If I work harder than everyone else in the plant will I produce more? iii. If I practice my foul shot more will my foul shooting improve in the game? iv. If I make more sales calls will I make any more sales? b. Variables affecting the individuals Expectancy perception: i. Self E fficacy- efficacy is a persons belief about his or her ability to perform a particular behavior successfully. Does the individual believe that he or she has the require skills and competencies required to perform well and the required goals? ii. Goal Difficulty- Goals that are set too high or performance expectations that are made too difficult, lead to low expectancy perceptions. When individuals perceive that the goals are beyond their ability to achieve, motivation is low because of low Expectancy. iii. Perceived Control Over Performance- For Expectancy to be high, individuals must believe that some degree of control over the expected outcome. When individuals perceive that the outcome is beyond their ability to influence, Expectancy, and thus motivation, is low. For example, many profit-sharing plans do not motivate individuals to increase their effort because these employees do not think that they have direct control over the profits of their large companies. 2. Instrumentality- Probability (PaR): The instrumentality is the belief that if one does meet performance expectations, he or she will receive a greater reward. This reward may come in the form of a pay increase, promotion, recognition or sense of accomplishment. It is important to note that when it is perceived that valued rewards follow all levels of performance, then instrumentality is low. For example, if a professor is known to give everyone in the class an A regardless of performance level, then instrumentality is low. a. Examples include: i. If a get a better grade on tomorrows math test will I get an A in math? ii. If I produce more than anyone else in the plant, will I get a bigger raise? A faster promotion? iii. If my foul shooting improves will I have a shot a team MVP? iv. If I make more sales will I get a bonus? A greater commission? v. If I make more sales will I believe that I am the best sales person or be recognized by others as the best sales person? b. Variables affecting the individuals instrumentality perception: i. Trust- When individuals trust their leaders, theyre more likely to believe their promises that good performance will be rewarded. ii. Control- When workers do not trust the leaders of their organizations, they often attempt to control the reward system through a contract or some other type of control mechanism. When individuals believe they have some kind of control over how, when, and why rewards are distributed, Instrumentality tends to increase. iii. Policies- The degree to which pay and reward systems are formalized in written policies has an impact on the individuals Instrumentality perceptions. Formalized policies linking rewards to performance tend to increase Instrumentality. 3. Valance- V(R): The valance refers the value the individual personally places on the rewards. This is a function of his or her needs, goals, values and Sources of Motivation. a. Examples include: . How much I really want an A in math? ii. Do I want a bigger raise? Is it worth the extra effort? Do I want a promotion? iii. How important to me is it to be team MVP? iv. Do I need a sales bonus? Is the extra time I spend making extra sales calls worth the extra commission? v. Is it important to me that I am the best salesperson? b. Variables affecting the individuals Valance for outcomes: i. Values ii. Needs iii. Goals iv. Preferences v. Sources of Motivation c. Potential Valued Outcomes may include: i. Pay increases and bonuses ii. Promotions iii. Time off iv. New and interesting assignments v. Recognition vi. Intrinsic satisfaction from validating ones skills and abilities vii. Intrinsic satisfaction from knowing that your efforts had a positive influence in helping someone. IV. Expectancy and Instrumentality are attitudes, or more specifically, they are cognitions. As such, they represent an individuals perception of the likelihood that effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to the desired outcomes. These perceptions represent the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s subjective reality, and may or may not bear close resemblance to actual probabilities. These perceptions are tempered by the individuals experiences (learning theory), observations of others (social learning theory), and self-perceptions. V. Expectancy Theory can be used to define what is termed a strong situation. Strong situations act to have base is a strong influence on the behavior of individuals, often overriding their personalities, personal preferences, and other dispositional variables. A. Consequences: There are highly valued positive or negative outcomes perceived to be associated with behavior in the situation. This is the same as Valance in Expectancy Theory B. Likelihood: There is a high perceived probability that these consequences will follow behavior (e. g. , I am certain that if I swear at my boss, she will fire me). This is the same as Instrumentality in Expectancy Theory. C. Specificity: Required behavior is well defined and understood by the individual (e. g. , Wear a black tuxedo is more specific than dress appropriately). This is a part of what determines Expectancy in Expectancy Theory.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Interrogations of Chinese Immigrants at Angel Island Chinese immigration, after being shut down for many years by governmental legislation and an anti- Chinese climate resumed quickly after 1906. The major earthquake and fire that occurred in San Francisco lent the Chinese immigrants a window of opportunity to regain entrance to America. Immigrants could now claim, without proof, that they were indeed the son or daughter of a citizen or a partner in a legitimate business. These paper sons and paper merchants increased the number of Chinese immigrants by an unbelievable rate. It was this supposed population explosion that would lead the United States to investigate all incoming Chinese immigrants. Being wary of the impossibility of so many legitimate children of U.S. citizens of Chinese descent, the department of immigration and naturalization sought out to verify that these people were indeed the true sons and daughters or the actual businessmen that they claimed to be. Therefore it was against this historical background and unde! r these particular auspices that the interrogations at Angel Island were carried out from 1910 to 1940. These interrogations were by no means fair, nor were they based on any other legal or practical precedent. While unreasonable detentions were already the norm, the act of interrogating immigrants to the extent that the Chinese were interrogated was unheard of in history. These interrogations were intricate and detailed, and designed to ensnare unwitting Chinese immigrants seeking entrance into the United States. The interrogations not only presented a hurdle for incoming immigrants by prolonging their detention at Angel Island and increasing the bureaucracy required to process Chinese immigrants, but would deeply scar the Chinese landing in the United States. Moreover, the traumatic experiences at Angel Island coupled with other practices following the detentions such as raids of Chinatown during the Red Scare of the 1950's led to a persistent fear of deportation by landed C! hinese. The interrogations were more than just simple interview questions about one's village or parents, rather they were, taken as a whole, another method to exclude the Chinese from America. The entire interrogation was loosely structured but by no means were they were regular or fair. After being held at Angel Island on a writ of habeas corpus, Chinese immigrants were interrogated by a Board of Special Inquiry which was composed of two inspectors, one of which was the Chairman of the Board, a stenographer, and finally an interpreter. This board was not held to technical rules of procedure or evidence as used in other federal courts but rather was allowed to use any means it deemed fit under the exclusion acts and immigration laws to ascertain the applicant's legitimacy to enter the United States (Lai 20). Nevertheless the lines of questioning were generally the same for all immigrants. The questions usually started with personal information then proceeded onto family information, village information, and then finally information on the home. Within these groupings there were multiple side questions concerning details of the family or village. Immigrants were aske! d extremely detailed and far ranging questions within these side questions. They were asked questions similar to the questions Jow Yick faced in 1909 in case #1424, "Is she (your mother) a small footed woman?" or "Is any body of water near or within sight of your house?" Other questions concerning the village became increasingly detailed. In the case of Ung Shee, case #16778/2-12, the husband had to testify on the entire village and all the particulars of the inhabitants of each home. In one instance the inspector asked the husband of Ung Shee whether or not the woman in the third house and fourth row of the village had bound feet. In Ung Shee's case, detailed questioning about every family in every house was continued up until the seventh row of the village. Her husband also endured questions such as, "Do you cross a stream going to the market?" and "How large is the bridge over that stream?" as well as other questions such as, "Did your brother have a picture of yourself in ! his house?" (Box 1211 National Archives). This however, was not far from the norm for most immigrants. To give a general idea of the structure of the interrogation,
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Multicultural competence in student affairs is an exclusive resource that guides professionals in the field of student affairs so that they are able to develop a model that incorporates all multicultural subjects. However, multiculturalism is a wide field therefore; gathering for all these issues is a challenging task to the education professionals.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Methodologies and multicultural research in multicultural sensitivity specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Programs and policies have been developed to address issues of multiculturalism. Issues of race, class, religion, gender, age and abilities have been given priority. It is an obligation of student affairs professionals to address multicultural issues in institutions of higher education. Student affairs professionals have been in the forefront of the quest to create more welcoming and affirming campus environments and have always a ddressed issues of alienation and hostility in the campuses (Pope, Reynolds Mueller, 2004). Most higher education institutions have neglected the need to address the issue of lesbianism and bisexual students. Diverse array of student clubs and organizations have been initiated to address multicultural issues in most universities. However, they have not achieved the objective of addressing the issue of lesbianism. Lesbians, gay and bisexual people are always discriminated and harassed especially in the learning institutions. This oppresses them in every aspect of their life. It is therefore the responsibility of student affairs professionals to set up policies which help them to live their aspired life. This issue has never been given a preference by most institutions, yet it poses an overwhelming danger on the operation of learning institutions. Programs and policies have to be set up which addresses this issue in totality. One of the projects that can be employed to curb the pande mic posed by lesbianism and bisexualism is the use of programs for sexual minority students. The program helps in recognizing the sexual minority students in institutions of higher education. Initialization of such programs helps in the organization of educational workshops, sensitivity counseling and provision of accurate information to lesbian students (Henning-Stout, James Macintosh, 2000). The use of support groups is also a remedy to the glitch. Support groups help in the improvement of self esteem and the provision of assertion to students affected by stigmatization. Support groups have counselors who are experienced in dealing with social issues. They can decide to provide counseling service to students having issues of sexual orientation or refer them to outside agencies if need arises. Sexual minority as a multicultural issue can also be addressed by formulation of policies that help in protecting the sexual minority group. Examples of such policies include the no name pol icy and no discrimination policy (Henning-Stout, James Macintosh, 2000).Advertising Looking for case study on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To enhance the effectiveness of such policies, offices should be initiated where the accounts of discrimination and pestering can be handled. These offices will also help in the provision of support services and information to minority sex groups. Staff training should also be conducted in the institution so that it will increase their awareness on how handle cases of multiculturalism among staff. An umbrella commission should also be formed to furnish advices to all other bodies addressing issues of sexual minority. The function of the commission is to monitor all other activities pertaining lesbianism. They can also help in proposing ideas and projects that strengthens educational programs relating to lesbian and bisexuals issues. In addition to this, the commission will he lp in providing advices to the board of the institution on the recommended legislation influencing the sexual minority groups. References Henning-Stout, M., James, S. Macintosh, S. (2000). Reducing Harassment of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth in schools: School Psychology Review 2000, Vol.29, No.2, pp.180-191. Pope, R., Reynolds, A., Mueller, J. (2004). Multicultural competence in student affairs (pp. 98-162). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Print. This case study on Methodologies and multicultural research in multicultural sensitivity was written and submitted by user Finnegan Gallegos to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.